2017 Physicists and Astronomers
Median Pay: US$110,980
Entry Level: Doctoral or professional degree
Summary
Physicists and astronomers study the ways in which various forms of matter and energy interact. Theoretical physicists and astronomers may study the nature of time or the origin of the universe. Some physicists design and perform experiments with sophisticated equipment such as particle accelerators, electron microscopes, and lasers.
Duties

Physicists and astronomers typically do the following:

  • Develop scientific theories and models that attempt to explain the properties of the natural world, such as the force of gravity or the formation of atoms
  • Plan and conduct scientific experiments and studies to test theories and discover properties of matter and energy
  • Write proposals and apply for research grants
  • Do complex mathematical calculations to analyze physical and astronomical data, such as data that may indicate the existence of planets in distant solar systems
  • Design new scientific equipment, such as telescopes and lasers
  • Develop computer software to analyze and model data
  • Write scientific papers that may be published in scholarly journals
  • Present research findings at scientific conferences and lectures

Physicists explore the fundamental properties and laws that govern space, time, energy, and matter. Some physicists study theoretical areas, such as the fundamental properties of atoms and molecules and the evolution of the universe. Others design and perform experiments with sophisticated equipment such as particle accelerators, electron microscopes, and lasers. Many apply their knowledge of physics to practical areas, such as developing advanced materials and medical equipment.

Astronomers study planets, stars, galaxies, and other celestial bodies. They use ground-based equipment, such as radio and optical telescopes, and space-based equipment, such as the Hubble Space Telescope. Some astronomers focus their research on objects in our solar system, such as the sun or planets. Others study distant stars, galaxies, and phenomena such as neutron stars and black holes, and some monitor space debris that could interfere with satellite operations.

Many physicists and astronomers work in basic research with the aim of increasing scientific knowledge. These researchers may attempt to develop theories that better explain what gravity is or how the universe works or was formed. Other physicists and astronomers work in applied research. They use the knowledge gained from basic research to affect new developments in areas such as energy, electronics, communications, navigation, and medical technology. For example, because of the work of physicists, lasers are used in surgery and microwave ovens are used in most kitchens.

Astronomers and physicists typically work on research teams together with engineers, technicians, and other scientists. Some senior astronomers and physicists may be responsible for assigning tasks to other team members and monitoring their progress. They may also be responsible for finding funding for their projects and therefore may need to write applications for research grants.

Although all of physics involves the same fundamental principles, physicists generally specialize in one of many subfields. The following are examples of types of physicists:

Astrophysicists study the physics of the universe. "strophysics" is a term that is often used interchangeably with "astronomy."

Atomic, molecular, and optical physicists study atoms, simple molecules, electrons, and light, as well as the interactions among them. Some look for ways to control the states of individual atoms, because such control might allow for further miniaturization or might contribute toward the development of new materials or computer technology.

Condensed matter physicists study the physical properties of condensed phases of matter, such as liquids and solids. They study phenomena ranging from superconductivity to liquid crystals.

Medical physicists work in healthcare and use their knowledge of physics to develop new medical technologies and radiation-based treatments. For example, some develop better and safer radiation therapies for cancer patients. Others may develop more accurate imaging technologies that use various forms of radiant energy, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging.

Particle and nuclear physicists study the properties of atomic and subatomic particles, such as quarks, electrons, and nuclei, and the forces that cause their interactions. 

Plasma physicists study plasmas, which are considered a distinct state of matter and occur naturally in stars and interplanetary space and artificially in neon signs and plasma screen televisions. Many plasma physicists study ways to create fusion reactors that might be a future source of energy.

Unlike physicists, astronomers cannot experiment on their subjects, because they are so far away that they cannot be touched or interacted with. Therefore, astronomers generally make observations or work on theory. Observational astronomers observe celestial objects and collect data on them. Theoretical astronomers analyze, model, and theorize about systems and how they work and evolve. Some astronomers specialize further into other subfields. The following are examples of types of astronomers who specialize by the objects and phenomena they study:

Cosmologists and extragalactic astronomers study the entire universe. They study the history, the creation and evolution, and the possible futures of the universe and its galaxies. These scientists have recently developed several theories important to the study of physics and astronomy, including string, dark-matter, and dark-energy theories.

Galactic, planetary, solar, and stellar astronomers study different phenomena that take place in the universe, specializing in certain parts of it. For example, solar astronomers study the sun, while stellar astronomers study other stars and associated phenomena.

High-energy astrophysicists collect and analyze x rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy rays that can help locate and study black holes or neutron stars.

Observational astronomers and optical astronomers use optical telescopes to study their subjects.

Radio astronomers use radio telescopes to analyze the radio spectrum for data about their subjects.

Growing numbers of physicists work in interdisciplinary fields, such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. For more information, see the profiles on biochemists and biophysicists and geoscientists.

Many people with a physics or astronomy background become professors or teachers. For more information, see the profiles on high school teachers and postsecondary teachers.

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Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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CT Technologist

Type: Part Time
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Applied Physicist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
DescriptionSARA is currently looking for a recent Electrical Engineering or Physics graduate to join our Aerospace Electromagnetic Pulse (AEMP) group which focuses on EMP hardness design, analysis, test, and verification of aircraft and aerospace systems. We are looking for creative, adaptable, and...
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Software Developer Intern

Type: Internship
At GenapSys we are working to power the world of healthcare and diagnostics with advanced DNA sequencing technology. Our proprietary technology integrates advanced electronics, molecular biology, fluidics and data analytics and machine learning to dramatically reduce cost of ownership and operating...
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Redwood City, CA

Medical Physics Resident

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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Research Support Intern - Controls Software Engineering [Level II]

Type: Internship
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a multipurpose laboratory for astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, has a temporary summer-term employment opportunity for a student currently enrolled in an educational program or recently graduated in science and engineering...
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Radiation Therapist Lead

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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Physicist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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CT Technologist-PRN

Type: Part Time
Job Number: 383076Category: Allied HealthLocation: 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TXDepartment: 867220 - Amb-Image Cntr CtFull/Part Time/PRN: Day JobRegular/Temporary: RegularSchedule: Part-timeSecurityThis position is security-sensitive and subject to Texas Education Code 51.215, which authorizes...
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Radiation Therapist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
Dignity Health Medical Foundation, established in 1993, is a California nonprofit public benefit corporation with care centers throughout California. Dignity Health Medical Foundation is an affiliate of Dignity Health - one of the largest health systems in the nation - with hospitals and care...
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GEOPHYSICIST

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
DutiesSummaryThis position is part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.ResponsibilitiesAs a GEOPHYSICIST at the GS-1313-14 some of your typical work assignments may include:Acts as the senior subject matter expert in geophysics on assigned projects, tests, investigations, explorations,...
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( PER DIEM) PET TECHNOLOGIST- WEST HOUSTON

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
THIS IS A PER DIEM ROLEMission StatementThe mission of The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is to eliminate cancer in Texas, the nation, and the world through outstanding programs that integrate patient care, research and prevention, and through education for undergraduate and...
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Experimental Physicist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
Description Experimental Physicist
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MEDICAL PHYSICIST 1

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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Janesville, WI

Physics Technical Intern 3

Type: Internship
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Merrimack, NH

Staff Applied Physicist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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Knoxville, TN

Lead Radiation Therapist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
Under the direction of the Director of the Cancer Center and clinical direction of the radiation oncologists, coordinates and supervises the overall function of the Radiation Oncology Department. Supervises radiation therapy clinical spaces and workflows including radiation therapy operations...
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BC/BE Radiation Oncologist

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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DON RECENT GRADUATES PROGRAM INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICAL SCIENTIST/GEOPHYSICIST/OCEANOGRAPHER

Type: Full Time, Full Time Alumnus
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Stennis Space Center, MS

Facilities & Operations Engineer - Intern [Level III]

Type: Internship
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